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Evolución de los Insectos
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Evolución de los Insectos, Grimaldi y Engels 2005
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David Alan Grimaldi, nacio el 22 de septiembre de 1957 en Estados Unidos es un entomólogo y Curador del Museo Americano de Historia Natural de Nueva York. Trabaja en la Sección de Zoología de Invertebrados.

Fue un profesor adjunto en la Universidad de Cornell, donde obtuvo su Doctorado en Entomología en 1986, tabajando también en la Universidad de Columbia y en la Universidad de Nueva York.

Grimaldi es autor de Amber: Window to the Past, y coautor con Michael S. Engel de Evolution of the Insects (2005). Publicó numerosos artículos científicos en journales.

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Contenido de Evolución de los Insectos Editar

CONTENTS


Preface page xi Commonly Used Abbreviations xv 1. Diversity and Evolution 1

 	Introduction 	1
 	SPECIES: THEIR NATURE AND NUMBER 	6
 	    Drosophila 	7
 	    Apis 	9
 	    How Many Species of Insects? 	11
 	RECONSTRUCTING EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY 	15
 	    Systematics and Evolution 	15
 	    Taxonomy, Nomenclature, and Classification 	33
 	    Paleontology 	36

2. Fossil Insects 42

 	INSECT FOSSILIZATION 	42
 	    Types of Preservation 	43
 	DATING AND AGES 	62
 	MAJOR FOSSIL INSECT DEPOSITS 	65
 	    Paleozoic 	65
 	    Mesozoic 	70
 	    Cenozoic 	84

3. Arthropods and the Origin of Insects 93

 	ONYCHOPHORA: THE VELVET WORMS 	94
 	TARDIGRADA: THE WATER BEARS 	96
 	ARTHROPODA: THE JOINTED ANIMALS 	97
 	    Marellomorpha: The Lace Crabs 	98
 	    Arachnomorpha: Trilobites, Arachnids, and Relatives 	98
 	    Crustaceomorpha 	107
 	    Mandibulata 	107
 	    The Invasion of Land 	109
 	HEXAPODA: THE SIX-LEGGED ARTHROPODS 	111
 	    Entognatha: Protura, Collembola, and Diplura 	111

4. The Insects 119

 	MORPHOLOGY OF INSECTS 	119
 	    General Structure 	119
 	    The Head 	121
 	    The Thorax 	125
 	    The Abdomen 	131
 	DEFINING FEATURES OF THE INSECTS 	137
 	RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE INSECT ORDERS 	137
 	    A Brief History of Work 	137
 	    A Roadmap to the Phylogeny of Insects 	144

5. Earliest Insects 148

 	ARCHAEOGNATHA: THE BRISTLETAILS 	148
 	DICONDYLIA 	150
 	ZYGENTOMA: THE SILVERFISH 	150
 	RHYNIOGNATHA 	152

6. Insects Take to the Skies 155

 	PTERYGOTA, WINGS, AND FLIGHT 	155
 	    Insect Wings 	156
 	EPHEMEROPTERA: THE MAYFLIES 	160
 	METAPTERYGOTA 	166
 	PALAEODICTYOPTERIDA: EXTINCT BEAKED INSECTS 	168
 	    Palaeodictyoptera 	170
 	    Dicliptera 	170
 	    Megasecoptera 	171
 	    Diaphanopterodea 	172
 	    Paleozoic Herbivory 	173
 	ODONATOPTERA: DRAGONFLIES AND EARLY RELATIVES 	173
 	    Geroptera 	174
 	    Holodonata: Protodonata and Odonata 	174
 	    Protodonata: The Griffenflies 	175
 	    Order Odonata: The Dragonflies and Damselflies 	178

7. Polyneoptera 188

 	NEOPTERA 	188
 	WHAT ARE POLYNEOPTERA? 	189
 	    Plecopterida 	192
 	    Orthopterida 	193
 	PLECOPTERA: THE STONEFLIES 	194
 	EMBIODEA: THE WEBSPINNERS 	196
 	ZORAPTERA: THE ZORAPTERANS 	199
 	ORTHOPTERA: THE CRICKETS, KATYDIDS, GRASSHOPPERS, WETAS, AND KIN 	202
 	    Ensifera 	208
 	    Caelifera 	210
 	PHASMATODEA: THE STICK AND LEAF INSECTS 	211
 	TITANOPTERA: THE TITANIC CRAWLERS 	215
 	CALONEURODEA: THE CALONEURODEANS 	217
 	DERMAPTERA: THE EARWIGS 	217
 	GRYLLOBLATTODEA: THE ICE CRAWLERS 	222
 	MANTOPHASMATODEA: THE AFRICAN ROCK CRAWLERS 	224
 	DICTYOPTERA 	227
 	    Dictyopteran Relationships 	228
 	    Blattaria: The Roaches 	230
 	    Citizen Roach: Isoptera (Termites) 	238
 	    The Predatory Roachoids: Mantodea (Mantises) 	252
 	    Ages of the Dictyoptera 	260

8. The Paraneopteran Orders 261

 	PSOCOPTERA: THE BARK LICE 	261
 	PHTHIRAPTERA: THE TRUE LICE 	272
 	    Fossils and Ages 	275
 	FRINGE WINGS: THYSANOPTERA (THRIPS) 	280
 	    Feeding Habits 	283
 	    Social Behavior 	283
 	    Diversity and Relationships 	284
 	    Fossils and Origins 	285
 	THE SUCKING INSECTS: HEMIPTERA 	287
 	    Sternorrhyncha: Aphids, Whiteflies, Plant Lice, and Scale Insects 	289
 	    Auchenorrhyncha: The Cicadas, Plant Hoppers, and Tree Hoppers 	303
 	    Coleorrhyncha 	312
 	    Heteroptera: The �True Bugs� 	314

9. The Holometabola 331

 	PROBLEMATIC FOSSIL ORDERS 	331
 	    Miomoptera 	331
 	    Glosselytrodea 	332
 	THE ORIGINS OF COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS 	333
 	ON WINGS OF LACE: NEUROPTERIDA 	335
 	    Raphidioptera: The Snakeflies 	337
 	    Megaloptera: The Alderflies and Dobsonflies 	340
 	    Neuroptera: The Lacewings, Antlions, and Relatives 	341

10. Coleoptera and Strepsiptera 357

 	EARLY FOSSILS AND OVERVIEW OF PAST DIVERSITY 	360
 	ARCHOSTEMATA 	363
 	ADEPHAGA 	366
 	MYXOPHAGA 	370
 	POLYPHAGA 	371
 	STREPSIPTERA: THE ENIGMATIC ORDER 	399
 	    Diversity 	402
 	    Relationships to Other Orders 	402
 	    Fossils 	403

11. Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Other Wasps 407

 	THE EUHYMENOPTERA AND PARASITISM 	413
 	ACULEATA 	429
 	    The Ants 	440
 	    The Bees (Anthophila) 	454
 	EVOLUTION OF INSECT SOCIALITY 	464

12. Panorpida: Antliophora and Amphiesmenoptera 468

 	PANORPIDA 	468
 	ANTLIOPHORA: THE SCORPIONFLIES, TRUE FLIES, AND FLEAS 	468
 	MECOPTERIDA: MECOPTERANS AND SIPHONAPTERA 	470
 	    Early History 	470
 	    Recent Diversity and Relationships 	474
 	    The Fleas 	480
 	    Evolution of Ectoparasites and Blood Feeders of Vertebrates 	489
 	DIPTERA: THE TRUE FLIES 	491
 	    The Brachycera 	514
 	    The Cyclorrhapha 	531

13. Amphiesmenoptera: The Caddisflies and Lepidoptera 548

 	TRICHOPTERA: THE CADDISFLIES 	548
 	LEPIDOPTERA: THE MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES 	555
 	    Mesozoic Fossils 	556
 	    Basal Groups 	560
 	    Ditrysia 	573
 	    The �Higher� Ditrysians: Macrolepidoptera 	581
 	    Butterflies and Their Relatives (Rhopalocera) 	590
 	    Mimicry 	602

14. Insects Become Modern: The Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods 607

 	THE CRETACEOUS 	607
 	    Flowering of the World: The Angiosperm Radiations 	607
 	    Plant Sex and Insects: Insect Pollination 	613
 	    Radiations of Phytophagous Insects 	622
 	    Austral Arthropods: Remnants of Gondwana? 	625
 	    Insects, Mass Extinctions, and the K/T Boundary 	635
 	THE TERTIARY 	637
 	    Mammalian Radiations 	638
 	    Pleistocene Dispersal and Species Lifespans 	642
 	    Island Faunas 	642

15. Epilogue 646

 	WHY SO MANY INSECT SPECIES? 	646
 	    Age 	646
 	    Design 	646
 	    Capacity for High Speciation Rates 	647
 	    Low Rates of Natural Extinction 	647
 	THE FUTURE 	647

Glossary 651 References 662 Index 733

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